The Complete Guide to Passkeys – The Future Of Online Security

Passwords have long been a thorn in the side of digital security. Users often resort to weak, repetitive passwords, and even meticulously crafted ones can be difficult to remember. Moreover, complex passwords are not immune to phishing attacks and hacking attempts. The world needs a more secure, user-friendly solution, and it seems like that solution is finally here: passkeys. After almost a decade of development, these innovative login credentials are poised to transform the way we secure our online accounts. In this comprehensive guide, we’ll delve into the intricacies of passkeys, from their conception to practical usage.

the complete guide to passkeys

Table of Contents

What Is A Passkey?

A passkey is a novel authentication method designed to enhance the security and convenience of online account access. Unlike traditional passwords, which can be challenging to recall and prone to cyber threats, passkeys harness the power of public-key cryptography to ensure a more secure experience.

The concept of a passkey emerged from the collaboration of industry leaders in the FIDO Alliance. This consortium includes tech giants like Apple, Google, Microsoft, Amazon, and many more, reflecting the urgent need to tackle the global problem of password vulnerabilities.

What Is The FIDO Alliance?

The FIDO Alliance is an industry consortium comprising prominent technology companies, including Apple, Google, Microsoft, Amazon, and more, dedicated to addressing the security vulnerabilities of traditional password-based systems. Its primary goal is to develop open standards and technologies, such as passkeys, that enhance online security through advanced authentication methods like public-key cryptography. The FIDO Alliance strives to create a safer and more user-friendly digital environment by fostering collaboration among industry leaders and promoting the adoption of secure authentication solutions.

How Do Passkeys Work?

Passkeys are built on the foundation of a groundbreaking web standard called Web Authentication (WebAuthn). This standard leverages public-key cryptography, a tried-and-true solution adopted by secure messaging apps and online payment processors to protect sensitive information.

Instead of relying on usernames and passwords, passkeys utilize pairs of mathematically linked keys: a public key and a private key. The public key is stored on the service’s servers and does not jeopardize security if exposed. The private key remains securely stored on the user’s device.

When logging in, the service generates a challenge using the public key, which the user’s device solves using its private key without revealing the latter to the server. This secure process prevents phishers and hackers from intercepting sensitive data.

The User Experience: Simple and Seamless

From a user perspective, passkeys offer a remarkably simplified experience. When accessing an account that supports WebAuthn, the device or browser prompts the user to unlock the account using a PIN or biometric authentication (such as Face ID or Touch ID). All the cryptographic interactions between keys occur seamlessly in the background, making the login process seamless and secure.

Navigating Passkey Adoption: Accounts and Devices

Passkeys are gradually gaining traction, with support currently limited to select accounts and devices. Google, Microsoft, Shopify Pay, PayPal, Adobe, and TikTok are among the early adopters. However, widespread adoption is expected to increase as the technology matures.

Regarding devices, passkey support is still evolving. Apple has incorporated passkey support into iOS and macOS devices, while Google offers it on Android devices with plans to extend support to ChromeOS. Microsoft, which has already implemented limited passkey functionality, is set to enhance passkey features in Windows in the near future.

Implementing and Using Passkeys

Creating a passkey is a user-friendly process, whether for new or existing accounts. For new accounts, a “Sign up with passkey” option simplifies the process, involving entering an email address and confirming identity through biometric or PIN verification. For existing accounts, the passkey is added within account settings.

An exciting feature of passkeys is cross-device authentication. Users can sign in on different devices using a QR code generated during the login process, offering flexibility without compromising security.

What Are Some Examples Of Passkeys?

Passkeys offer a secure and convenient way to access online accounts in various day-to-day scenarios. Here are some examples of how passkeys are already used in everyday life:

  1. Smartphones and Tablets: Passkeys can replace traditional passwords for unlocking smartphones and tablets, using biometric authentication like fingerprints or facial recognition.

  2. Banking Apps: Passkeys can provide secure access to mobile banking apps, allowing users to check account balances, make transactions, and manage finances without the need for lengthy passwords.

  3. Email Accounts: Passkeys can replace passwords for accessing email accounts, ensuring that sensitive correspondence remains protected from unauthorized access.

  4. Online Shopping: E-commerce websites can implement passkeys to enable hassle-free and secure checkout experiences, eliminating the need for users to remember complex passwords for their shopping accounts.

  5. Social Media Platforms: Passkeys can enhance security on social media platforms, safeguarding personal information and interactions from potential breaches.

  6. Cloud Storage: Users can use passkeys to access cloud storage services, such as Dropbox or Google Drive, ensuring that valuable files remain private and protected.

  7. Workplace Applications: In professional settings, passkeys can offer secure access to workplace applications and sensitive company information.

  8. Entertainment Services: Streaming platforms like Netflix or Spotify can implement passkeys to protect user profiles and subscription details.

  9. Healthcare Portals: Passkeys can secure access to personal healthcare portals, where users can view medical records, schedule appointments, and communicate with healthcare providers.

  10. Travel Apps: Passkeys can simplify access to travel apps for booking flights, hotels, and rental cars, enhancing convenience while keeping personal travel data secure.

  11. Education Platforms: Passkeys can protect access to online education platforms, allowing students to engage in remote learning securely.

  12. Gaming Accounts: Players can use passkeys to secure their gaming accounts, preventing unauthorized access and ensuring the safety of in-game assets and progress.

What Are The Challenges Of Implementing Passkeys?

Passkeys represent a robust alternative to traditional passwords, combining security and convenience. While currently implemented by Apple across its devices, wider compatibility is on the horizon, with Windows and ChromeOS set to join the passkey revolution.

However, the transition to passkeys is not without challenges. Passkeys’ effectiveness relies on both device and service adoption, necessitating the active participation of websites and apps. Moreover, challenges exist in terms of cross-platform compatibility, syncing, and account recovery, particularly during this transitional phase.

As passkey support continues to expand, users can anticipate enhanced security and smoother login experiences. While a complete transition from passwords to passkeys will take time, the groundwork has been laid for a more secure digital future.


In conclusion, passkeys are poised to reshape the way we secure our digital lives. The collaboration of industry leaders, the adoption of robust cryptographic principles, and a focus on user experience all contribute to the potential success of passkeys. As technology evolves and support grows, passkeys are likely to become the standard for securing important online accounts, addressing the persistent problems associated with passwords.